Languages

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Languages

British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Over a million people converse in languages and 46 languages have just a single speaker! Languages are grouped into families that share a common ancestry. For example, English is related to German and Dutch, and they are all part of the Indo-European family of languages. Nearly every language uses a similar grammatical structure, even though they may not be linked in vocabulary or origin. Communities which are usually isolated from each other because of mountainous geography may have developed multiple languages.

Papua New Guinea for instance, boasts no less than different languages! The ease or difficulty of learning another language can depend on your mother tongue.

In general, the closer the second language is to the learner's native tongue and culture in terms of vocabulary, sounds or sentence structure, the easier acquisition will be.

So, a Polish speaker will find it easier to learn another Slavic language like Czech than an Asian language such as Japanese, while linguistic similarities mean that a Japanese speaker would find it easier to learn Mandarin Chinese than Polish. Dutch is said to be the easiest language for native English speakers to pick up, while research shows that for those native English speakers who already know another language, the five most difficult languages to get your head around are Arabic, Cantonese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese and Korean.

In order to see this content you need to have both Javascript enabled and Flash installed. In Septemberdelegates at the Trinity College Carmarthen conference in Wales focused on how to stop endangered languages becoming extinct.

The Latin, or Roman, alphabet is the most widely used writing system in the world. This was adapted by the Greeks, whose alphabet was in turn adapted by the Romans. Many scientists also believe that knowledge of another language can boost your brainpower.

languages

A study of monolingual and bilingual speakers suggests speaking two languages can help slow down the brain's decline with age. And to quote Nelson Mandela, "If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head.

If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart. The Head of the European Commission Office in Wales, Andy Klom, discusses the advantages of a second language and says "Learning another language is a matter of confidence, learning and hard effort. Read the whole interview of Andy Klom on learning other languages. These are currently travelling through space! Under the Romans, Latin became the lingua franca across Europe. Some of the oldest languages known include Sanskrit, Sumerian, Hebrew and Basque.

A study of macaque monkeys suggests that languages may have evolved to replace grooming as a better way of forging social ties amongst our ancestors. Another theory is that our ancient predecessors imitated natural sounds: e. Human communication might have been sparked by involuntary sounds such as "ouch" or "eek" or by communal activities such as heaving or carrying heavy objects, coordinated by shouts of "yo-he-ho"etc.

Another theory proposes that language evolved from the communication between mother and baby, with the mother repeating the baby's babbling and giving it a meaning. Indeed, in most languages "mama" or similar "ma"-sounds actually mean 'mother'. Around artificial languages have been created since the 17th century. The first were invented by scholars for communication among philosophers. Later ones were developed by less scholarly men for trade, commerce and international communication.

They include 'Interlingua' a mixture of Latin and Romance with Chinese-like sentence structure'Ido''Tutonish' a simplified blend of Anglo-Saxon English and German and the more commonly-known 'Esperanto'invented by Ludwig Zamenhof, a Jewish ophthalmologist from Poland, in Esperanto is a spoken and written blend of Latin, English, German and Romance elements and literally means "one who hopes". Today, Esperanto is widely spoken by approximately 2 million people across the world.Illustrations by Victoria Fernandez.

Determining what are the most spoken languages in the world is a more difficult task than you might imagine. We can say with some confidence that Mandarin, English, Spanish and Arabic will make an appearance and roughly in what orderbut there are some surprises, too! Would you have guessed that Bengali is in the top 10 most spoken languages?

When tallied according to number of native speakers onlythese are the most spoken languages in the world. Numbers vary widely — Ethnologue puts the number of native speakers at 1. If you wish to learn a language that one in six people in the world speak, this is the one for you.

Seeing as Chinese is a tonal language that uses thousands of logograms, it will certainly keep you busy. If we were only to look at native speakers, Spanish has its nose in front of English with about million speakers. If you want a language that will open up whole continents to you, Spanish is your best bet.

As with all the languages on this list, the politics of language and associated identity are highly disputed: ask Catalan or Quechua speakers if Spanish is their local tongue and you will get a very different answer. But it is certainly the primary language of most of South and Central America, Spain, and, ahemlarge swathes of the US.

This indicates the remarkable success of English as the lingua franca of business, travel and international relations. The relative ease with which English can be picked up especially compared with Chinese and the pervasive soft power of US culture means that English will continue to dominate the world stage for the foreseeable future. For some, English is still synonymous with opportunity and a better quality of life.

___ Languages of the World

Whether this is one language — Hindustani — or two dialects is still fiercely debated. Spoken mainly in northern India and parts of Pakistan, Hindi uses devnagri script, while Urdu uses Persian notation. At the time of writing, the debate about its role in Indian education and society has once again flared up: Prime Minister Narendra Modi, a Hindu nationalist, is seeking to have Hindi displace English in the southern Indian states as the primary language of official communication and education, a strategy that has been met with resistance.

If you ever travel in the Indian subcontinent, a little Hindi will get you a long way. Recent numbers put Arabic at around million native speakers.

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But this is another instance of numbers not telling the full tale: Arabic, like Chinese, is so vastly different in its respective dialects as to be effectively a number of languages, grouped as one for the sake of convenience. Modern Standard Arabic is a primarily written form, closely related to the Classical Arabic of the Quran. However, the spoken forms of Arabic in, say, Oman and Morocco are so different that a couple of philosophy professors from these countries might be able to discuss the finer points of the ancient texts while still struggling to order lunch.

It is the language of Kolkata, the Andaman Islands, fabulous sweets, and odd million Bangladeshis — many of whom are extremely vulnerable to climate change.To save this word, you'll need to log in. See more words from the same century From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. How Is a Klingon like a 12th-century How Is a Klingon like a 12th-century nun?

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The surprising history of 'conlang' Failed Attempts to Reform English Accessed 19 Apr. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. What does capricious mean? Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! We have a hard decision to make. Or 'unessential'? And who put it there, anyway? Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts.

Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Come look at pictures of baby animals. Can you correctly identify these flowers? Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Do you know the person or title these quotes describe? Login or Register.

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Thesaurus language noun. Save Word. Log In. Synonyms of language. Keep scrolling for more. Learn More about language. Share language Post more words for language to Facebook Share more words for language on Twitter.

Can Americans Identify These European Languages?

Time Traveler for language The first known use of language was in the 14th century See more words from the same century. From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. The surprising history of 'conlang'. Failed Attempts to Reform English Thesaurus Entries near language lanes laneway laneways language languages languid languidly See More Nearby Entries. Phrases Related to language body language.To save this word, you'll need to log in.

French is her first language. The book has been translated into several languages. He's learning English as a second language.

He is always careful in his use of language.

languages

See More Recent Examples on the Web Most of the content is in Russian, without subtitles, but English- language lectures are launching next week.

Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of language 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a History and Etymology for language Middle English, from Anglo-French langagefrom lange, langue tongue, language, from Latin lingua — more at tongue Keep scrolling for more Learn More about language Share language Post the Definition of language to Facebook Share the Definition of language on Twitter Time Traveler for language.

See more words from the same century From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. How Is a Klingon like a 12th-century How Is a Klingon like a 12th-century nun?

The 10 Most Spoken Languages In The World

The surprising history of 'conlang' Failed Attempts to Reform English Accessed 19 Apr. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for language language.

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Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. What does capricious mean? Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! We have a hard decision to make.

Or 'unessential'? And who put it there, anyway? Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Come look at pictures of baby animals. Can you correctly identify these flowers? Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Do you know the person or title these quotes describe? Login or Register.

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Save Word. Log In. Definition of language. Keep scrolling for more. Synonyms for language Synonyms lingomother tonguespeechtonguevocabulary Visit the Thesaurus for More.

The World’s Top 20 Languages—And The Words English Has Borrowed From Them

Examples of language in a Sentence How many languages do you speak? Recent Examples on the Web Most of the content is in Russian, without subtitles, but English- language lectures are launching next week.

First Known Use of language 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a. History and Etymology for language Middle English, from Anglo-French langagefrom lange, langue tongue, language, from Latin lingua — more at tongue. Learn More about language. Time Traveler for language The first known use of language was in the 14th century See more words from the same century.

From the Editors at Merriam-Webster.In dungeons and dragons 5th edition game our character can speak some default 5e languages which are indicated by your race and also your character background might give you the access to get one or some additional languages depends on your choice.

The creatures which has the knowledge to speak in different dialects of the similar language can communicate easily with one another. Actually, there is no separate category for the best 5e languages and it comes from your experience with your character and how many 5e backgrounds you have used and also races.

We can get so many languages, when we have the below specifications with us and once you chose the new 5e language then you can easily interact with your families before of your enemies. By learning more languages you have to enhance your character levels. So from the above mentioned sources we can easily get our favorite languages and from there you can learn their rules and regulations more deeply than we explained in the above paragraph.

From the below lines we can get to know what are the languages we can learn from the above mentioned sources, so have a look at them and the below lines will help you a lot. So get them now. From the below list you can get the best standard languages in dungeons and dragons role playing game and your conversion with your campaign members. These are the best 5e languages and you can get the above mentioned languages such as exotic and standard category.

So you can use thos sources to have an exciting experience with your dungeons and dragons role playing game by using the different 5e character sheets. Contents 0. Comments CarrieBus says. February 21, at pm. Delaney Gale says. February 25, at pm.A language is a structured system of communication. Language, in a broader sense, is the method of communication that involves the use of — particularly human — languages.

The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of languagesuch as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias and Plato in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought.

Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5, and 7, However, any precise estimate depends on the arbitrary distinction dichotomy between languages and dialect. This is because human language is modality -independent.

Depending on philosophical perspectives regarding the definition of language and meaning, when used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules.

All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs to particular meanings. Oralmanual and tactile languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemesand a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances. Human language has the properties of productivity and displacementand relies entirely on social convention and learning.

Its complex structure affords a much wider range of expressions than any known system of animal communication. Language is thought to have originated when early hominins started gradually changing their primate communication systems, acquiring the ability to form a theory of other minds and a shared intentionality. Language is processed in many different locations in the human brainbut especially in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Humans acquire language through social interaction in early childhood, and children generally speak fluently by approximately three years old.

The use of language is deeply entrenched in human culture. Therefore, in addition to its strictly communicative uses, language also has many social and cultural uses, such as signifying group identitysocial stratificationas well as social grooming and entertainment. Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had in order for the later developmental stages to occur.

A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a language family.This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers. However, all such rankings should be used with caution, because it is not possible to devise a coherent set of linguistic criteria for distinguishing languages in a dialect continuum. There are also difficulties in obtaining reliable counts of speakers, which vary over time because of population change and language shift. In some areas, there is no reliable census data, the data is not current, or the census may not record languages spoken, or record them ambiguously.

Sometimes speaker populations are exaggerated for political reasons, or speakers of minority languages may be under-reported in favour of a national language.

The following languages are listed as having at least 10 million first language speakers in the edition of Ethnologuea language reference published by SIL Internationalwhich is based in the United States.

The following table contains the top languages by estimated number of native speakers in the edition of the Swedish encyclopedia Nationalencyklopedin. As census methods in different countries vary to a considerable extent, and given that some countries do not record language in their censuses, any list of languages by native speakers, or total speakers, is effectively based on estimates.

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Updated estimates from are also provided. The top eleven languages have additional figures from the edition of the Nationalencyklopedin. Numbers above 95 million are rounded off to the nearest 5 million. Bubble chart of languages by proportion of native speakers worldwide [11].

Languages with at least 50 million first-language speakers, millions according to: Ethnologue [13]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For languages by total speakers, see List of languages by total number of speakers. For languages with the smallest numbers of native speakers, see lists of endangered languages.

Wikipedia list article. This section needs to be updated. In particular: the edition of Nationalencyklopedin has revised figures. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. November Global language system Languages of Africa Languages used on the Internet Linguistic demography Linguistic diversity index List of ISO codes List of languages by number of native speakers in India uses a different definition of Hindi List of languages by the number of countries in which they are recognized as an official language List of languages by total number of speakers List of sign languages by number of native signers Lists of languages Number of languages by country World language.


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